Biogas is a type of gas that has several other gasses present in it. Biogas is produced by the breakdown of various natural and organic matters. Biogas can be made with organic matter without the presence of oxygen and mainly carbon dioxide and methane like plant waste, food remains sewage and agricultural waste. Other gases present in biogas are methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, hydrogen, and ammonia. The percentage of methane and carbon dioxide is maximum in biogas.
Hydrogen sulfide is a gas or a chemical compound that is colorless in nature. It has a foul smell that is similar to the smell of rotten eggs. It is a highly corrosive, flammable, and poisonous gas. Hydrogen sulfide is present in biogas. The level of hydrogen sulfide increases in biogas with the presence of waste that is high in protein.
The high protein waste generally contains sulfur-based acids known as amino acids. These amino acids trigger the biogas and end up boosting the level of hydrogen sulfide in biogas. As we all know hydrogen sulfide is a highly corrosive and poisonous gas. It can cause major damage to pipelines, instruments, and also equipment.
Dangerous To Mankind
Hydrogen sulfide is a harmful and toxic gas. It is generally shipped as a compressed and liquefied gas. It is very harmful to humans in several ways. Here are few ways by which hydrogen sulfide is harmful to humans.
- Contact with Eye or Skin: If hydrogen sulfide is exposed to the skin or eyes it can cause irritation and result in painful rashes and dermatitis. It can result in a burning and irritation sensation in the eyes. Direct contact with hydrogen sulfide can also give a person frostbite and other skin problems.
- Inhalation: Hydrogen sulfide is absorbed by the lungs very fast. It can make the body weak. It can cause trouble in breathing and can result in chest congestion.
The Desulfurization Process
As we all know that hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas is necessary as it is a highly flammable, toxic, and corrosive gas that can be dangerous to humans and can also ruin piping and other instruments. Here are the methods by which we can remove hydrogen sulfide from biogas.
- Caustic Scrubbing: In this method hydrogen sulfide and oxygen both are removed by the use of several other chemicals like trisodium phosphate, ammoniacal solutions, and sodium phenolate. In this potassium hydroxide, calcium and sodium are used to purify hydrogen sulfide.
- Water Scrubbing: In this method, gas is passed through the path of water. Water then absorbs some amount of hydrogen sulfide. This is only effective for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and not carbon dioxide with it. It is also the easiest and most cost-effective way of hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas.
- Absorption with Solid Chemical: This is a great way of hydrogen sulfide removal and can be done only if there are no other impurities to be removed. This method uses ferric oxide and shaving of wood is placed in an absolutely dry scrubber. It is then kept to react with the hydrogen sulfide gas to be purified.
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